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Johanna Rothman helps managers and teams solve problems and deliver products. Her most recent book is Manage your Project Portfolio: Increase Your Capacity and Finish More Projects. You can read her blogs and other writings at jrothman.com Johanna is a DZone MVB and is not an employee of DZone and has posted 128 posts at DZone. You can read more from them at their website. View Full User Profile

Chess Pieces or Domain Expertise? Your Choice

06.18.2013
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Many years ago, I started a job as a contract manager, and it became clear I had a big problem. I had developers who knew one area of the code well. I had testers who knew not much of any area of the code well, even though they had worked for the organization for many years. Why? They had been shuffled from one project to another almost every month for years.

The writers had more domain expertise than anyone, because they had learned the product from end to end. What was I going to do? This project needed to finish in eight weeks, I needed to hire my replacement, and the people were shell-shocked from one manager after another. I was the fourth Director of Software Development in six months.

I decided to make a project portfolio, and rank the projects to know which projects were first, second, and third. I knew about this first project, but what was second and third? I was sure we had more crises, waiting.

Next, I asked people what they wanted to work on. I was sure that people could select their areas of responsibility, and it would work out. This is before we had agile teams. I was using a staged delivery lifecycle, so we had cross-functional teams and we worked by feature.

Next, I asked the teams to develop their deliverables in two-week chunks: what deliverables, as in features, could they deliver in the next two weeks, working as a cross-functional team?

The teams started to work together. They started to work across the code, not just in one area of the code. It wasn’t perfect, but it was working. The testers expanded their knowledge, because they were able to focus on the entire product. The developers learned the product end-to-end. The writers were happier, because people answered their questions.

About three weeks into this, a crisis happened with the second-ranked project. A senior manager wanted to yank a bunch of people off the top-ranked project and put them onto the second ranked project. He told me I had to give him people.

“No. I have no one for you.”

“But you work for me.”

“Yes, I work for the organization. But this project, the one that everyone is on, is more important than your project. So, I have no one for you, and I won’t for another two weeks. Unless I hear from the CEO that your project is more important than this one. In that case, we will stop working on this one, and everyone will work on your project.

We only have eight people. We can’t multitask. We can only work on one project at a time. Moving people off and onto projects as if they are chess pieces doesn’t make sense. This top-ranked project has two more weeks to go, and then it’s done. When it’s done, I can assign all eight people to your project, no problem. But assigning them now? Craziness.”

Now, should I have called him crazy? That was darn close to a career limiting conversation. Don’t do that! But the rest of the conversation? Useful.

And that’s the topic of this month’s Management Myth #18: I Can Move People Like Chess Pieces. When you move people like chess pieces, you deny them the opportunity to learn domain expertise. You don’t manage the project portfolio, and you decrease the capacity of your organization. It’s all around bad.

Did I want to be nice to the senior manager? Of course I did. But, good management is not about being nice to everyone all the time. Much of management is about saying no when you have to. And, I really needed to say no.

With agile approaches, I would have had more options: I could have used iterations and sequenced the projects differently—maybe. But that would not have allowed the organization to release the top-ranked project in the next few weeks. It would have made the people feel horrible, as if I’d yanked the promised dessert away from them. Yes, the project was that close to completion.

While you can move people as if they are chess pieces, it’s rarely a good idea. You want to leave people with project teams, to let them create a solid team—that’s the forming, storming, norming part. And, you want to keep people on a product long enough that they develop significant domain expertise in the product. When they become bored and ask to move, then they will tell you in a one-on-one that it’s time to move.

In the meantime, don’t move people as if they are chess pieces. People need to develop mastery over their work. They need the autonomy to select the areas of their work that they will develop domain expertise in. They need to feel as if they have a sense of purpose about the work. Gee, it sounds as if I’m parroting Dan Pink, in Drive. I guess I am. When you commit to project teams, and leave people where they are, so they can learn the product and learn how to work with their teams, and let the work flow through the teams, you create an environment that allows for autonomy, mastery, and purpose. And, that’s part of what a great manager does.

Published at DZone with permission of Johanna Rothman, author and DZone MVB. (source)

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