How Does Your Software Grow? Do You Know?
I read Metrics with Impact by Michiel van Genuchten and Les Hatton in the July/August IEEE Software, pp 99-101 last week. They discuss a metric: Compound Annual Growth, CAGR for software.
CAGR is interesting to me, because I’ve actually measured it before. Here are some graphs (no numeric data) to describe what happens in different kinds of projects.
In a waterfall project (any project where you wait until the end to integrate and fix defects), where you only learn about problems and fix them at the end, code growth follows a typical S curve: you build a lot of code at the beginning, less code at the end. Now, note the dashed line.
If you give the project enough time at the end of the project to fix the defects, you can reduce the code size *in the projects I measured* by about a third of the code base. These were not large programs. They were programs I would describe as small to medium size, 3-8 teams in size. They were only in the projects I measured, and it was a long time ago. I no longer have the raw data.
I’ve done assessments since then—and I don’t have access to the raw data—where that dip never occurred. The code base never decreased in size.
In the assessments I’ve done, the code growth has followed the S-curve, except when people have copy/pasted portions of the code. In that case, the code grew exponentially. I recognized that because not only did the code base never shrink, the Fault Feedback Ratio got so large, the developers could not make progress.
I believe, because of refactoring, that agile projects and programs follow a different code growth pattern. That’s only if the developers refactor. I believe they follow a pattern more like this one, where because the features are small, the code base grows more slowly and because of refactoring, the code base is as likely to shrink as the developers add features, as it is to grow. Well, it does on my homegrown projects :-)
Michiel and Les have just 10 data points on large programs, and none of those programs are agile (I think). Their measured Compound Annual Growth Rate, CAGR is 1.16.
Knowing the CAGR is useful, because it allows you to predict hardware footprint and supports estimation. It’s at least better than trying to take the unknown requirements and trying to estimate them!
If you are interested in providing me your data, I am willing to write the IEEE Software article. Here’s what I need: how many people are on your project, what agile means to you (do you release every iteration, etc.), what your CAGR has been since you went agile, and your contact information. If you prefer to be a coauthor, we can discuss that too.
I’m interested in this, because this could be a potential measurement for large programs. Maybe.
Let me know if you want to help. Maybe discuss this in the comments. Maybe I’m asking for not-enough-data to write an article. All I know is this: I can’t do this without you. If we want to know how agile software grows, we need data. And, in my opinion, we need data that separates different kinds of agile programs into these buckets: up to three agile teams, 4-8 agile teams, 9and above agile teams. Or, something like that. Maybe just the number of people on the program will do.
Thanks for your help!
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