Kelly Waters is Web Technology Director for IPC Media, one of the UK's largest publishers of consumer magazines and web sites. Kelly has been in software development for about 25 years and is a well-known narrator of agile development principles and practices, as a result of his popular blog 'Agile Software Development Made Easy!' (www.agile-software-development.com). Kelly is a DZone MVB and is not an employee of DZone and has posted 40 posts at DZone. You can read more from them at their website. View Full User Profile
Agile User Stories, Themes, Epics, Features - What's The Difference?
A recent comment on one of my blog posts asked about the difference between agile user stories, themes, epics, and features, and about the relationship, or hierarchy, between these terms?
it is a bit confusing, as these phrases are often used quite
interchangeably (at least by me). Here's my take on what the difference
A user story may include several features. For instance, 'As a user, I want to search for a job, so I can find my next career move'
might include various features, such as simple search, advanced search,
faceted navigation, sort, filter, sign up for email alerts, etc.
A user story this big would be considered an epic,
since it's a very big user story. Epics can (and ideally should) be
broken down into further user stories to make them easier to handle.
Each of these features can be broken down into tasks.
For instance, the advanced search feature (which could also be
expressed as a user story of course) might include back-end development
of the search index, front-end development of the search box, an API to
find the most relevant search results, front-end development of the
results page, writing test cases, executing the tests, configuring the
search servers, etc.
Themes, on the other hand are just a
broad way of describing an area of focus. For example, the theme of the
next 2 sprints might be 'job search', after which it might be something
else, say 'apply for a job', followed by 'CV database' for instance.
Each theme would probably contain several epics or many user stories.
terms of hierarchy, I think these aspects of the Product Backlog can be
defined in as structured or as loose a way as you think is right for
your project. I don't think there need to be any hard and fast rules on
For anyone finding this terminology a bit confusing, I hope that helps!